Ginger’s warm, pungent and peppery bite is an international hit. The ginger rhizome is featured in Indian cuisine as spicy masala chai, in Japan as pickled gari (the pink stuff that goes with sushi) and in Jamaica as a refreshing ginger beer. And while no one really knows the exact origin of Zingiber officinale, the biological variability of related species in Southeast Asia makes that region the best guess. Ginger rhizome has also been a staple in both Ayurvedic and Chinese Medicine, traditional practices that are thousands of years old.
While many of us see vinegar as a simple condiment or an ingredient in pickling, it’s actually a 10,000-year-old remedy that’s heightened when combined with medicinal herbs. Medicated vinegar, technically known as an acetum, was clearly documented as medicine in the early versions of The United States Pharmacopeia and stocked in traditional herbal apothecaries worldwide. It’s hard to believe, but this modern day cooking ingredient was once combined with many powerful plants for herbal medicine. Our recipe below includes tulsi, a beloved adaptogen of Ayurveda used to support a healthy response to stress.* We’ve also paired it with fresh ginger root, known for its unique spicy and pungent taste, that supports healthy digestion.* This blend makes for beautiful synergy of Ayurvedic herbs in a traditional western herbalism format.
Ginger is a flowering plant native to several Asian countries, as well as West Africa and the Caribbean. It has been used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries and has been applied to treat a range of conditions from motion sickness to digestive problems.
- Studies have shown that ginger can have a positive impact on reducing inflammation and discomfort in people with arthritis when compared to control groups.
- The medicinal properties of ginger are derived from the root or rhizome of the plant, and its stem.
- Ginger is best consumed raw but is available in powder form, capsules, and oils, or as juice.
How does ginger work?
Inflammation is an essential immune response that allows the body to heal wounds and fight infections. The capacity for ginger to reduce inflammation is what underlies many of its medical uses.
Inflammation describes the self-protective process by which the body releases white blood cells to combat infection and clear out harmful organisms, such as bacteria.
Inflammation can cause discomfort, particularly when it is chronic. Inflammation is common in many types of arthritis and contributes towards pain around the affected joints.
The primary therapeutic goal of treating arthritis is to minimize the discomfort it causes, as there are currently no cures for the condition.
What does the evidence say?
Ginger is generally considered beneficial for treating the symptoms of arthritis, not the cause.
One study included 247 participants with a common type of arthritis called osteoarthritis. The study found that those given ginger capsules twice a day for 6 months had a significantly greater reduction in pain than a control group. However, these participants were also more likely to experience side effects, such as heartburn, than the control group.
Other studies have indicated that ginger may be comparable to ibuprofen in terms of effectiveness.
A recent review concluded that people with osteoarthritis experienced a 30 percent greater pain reduction than a control group, and they were twice as likely to discontinue their treatment compared to a control group.
The benefits of consuming ginger are not restricted to osteoarthritis but can also reduce inflammation in other common forms of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
These pain-relieving properties of ginger have been extended to the treatment of muscular pain. A 2010 study found that consuming either raw or heated ginger caused a moderate to a large reduction in muscular pain, following an injury.
The overall consensus
The majority of current studies indicate the benefits of ginger, but some studies have also found no effect of ginger on relieving pain or reducing inflammation in arthritis.
While more research is needed to provide any definitive answers, ginger is not considered harmful and is more likely to be useful in managing the symptoms of arthritis.
How to take ginger
Ginger can be consumed raw or in powdered form. It can be consumed on its own and can be readily bought, as a capsule for oral consumption.
People use ginger in cooking, particularly in Asian dishes, such as stir-fry or curry. Alternatively, it can be brewed, as a tea, or made into syrup to flavor cold drinks.
Ginger can also be applied directly to inflamed areas of the body in the form of a cream or oil.
Dosage should be kept around 2-4 grams (g), taken up to 3 times per day. However, it is recommended not to exceed 4 g per day.
Is it safe?
To avoid the risk of an allergic reaction when taking ginger, test a product containing ginger oil on the skin. If a reaction occurs, it may be a sign of a ginger allergy.
The consumption of ginger is considered to be safe in small doses. Side effects are mild and rare, typically only occurring when more than 4 g are consumed per day.
If ginger is consumed orally, these side effects are usually gastrointestinal issues, for example, heartburn or indigestion.
Applying ginger to the skin can result in other side effects, including irritation and rashes.
It is important to consult with a doctor before taking ginger, as it may not be appropriate for everyone. Caution is used with individuals who have:
- blood disorders
Ginger can also interfere with certain medications, including blood-thinning drugs.
Furthermore, it is possible to be allergic to ginger. This can be determined by applying a small amount of ginger cream to the skin. If any side effects, such as skin irritation or rashes appear within 24 hours, it may be a sign of an allergy.
Is it worth taking?
Assuming there are no allergies, adding ginger to a person’s diet is the safest way to introduce the medicinal effects of ginger to the body.
Supplements, herbs, and topical creams with ginger in them are not monitored by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and there may be concerns with safety, purity, or quality.
Using up to 4 g of ginger per day could be beneficial for managing symptoms of arthritis, and this quantity is relatively safe to consume. Ginger is easy to ingest as a capsule, apply to skin or incorporate into a healthful diet.
For most people, it is worth trying ginger and seeing how the body responds. However, it is sensible to seek advice from a doctor before taking ginger, to check it is appropriate.
There are also several notable alternatives to ginger. Examples include turmeric, cinnamon, cayenne or garlic. These spices have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful in treating arthritis.
Other methods of arthritis relief
One way of stopping the discomfort of arthritis is to reduce inflammation around the joints.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can be used to reduce inflammation. NSAIDs operate by disrupting the production of enzymes that cause inflammation and discomfort.
The compounds in ginger have also been found to inhibit these troublesome enzymes and may function in a similar way to NSAIDs.
Similarly, it is possible that ginger is able to turn off certain genes that cause inflammation, thus making it a powerful alternative to NSAIDs.
The bronchi are the passages that connect the lungs to the mouth and nose. But what home remedies are best to treat bronchitis?
People with bronchitis experience breathing difficulties caused by a reduced capacity to carry air through the bronchi into the lungs. They also tend to have mucus or phlegm in their airways.
Several treatments, including many home remedies, are available to treat bronchitis and its symptoms. This article looks at how effective these treatments may be so that people with bronchitis can make an informed decision about how to treat it.
Drinking warm liquids
Warm water, tea, and other hot drinks help to thin mucus, making coughing easier.
A 2008 study suggests that hot beverages can provide “immediate and sustained relief from symptoms of a runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat, chilliness, and tiredness”.
Ginger tea may also help bronchitis symptoms, as ginger is a natural anti-inflammatory.
Using a humidifier
Keeping the air in the home or workplace moist helps to loosen mucus in the airways and reduce coughing. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommend a cool-mist humidifier or steam vaporizer to do this.
A 2014 study indicates that long-term humidification therapy is a cost-effective treatment for people with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis. However, researchers cautioned that more investigation was necessary.
COPD is an umbrella term for a number of lung conditions including bronchitis and bronchiectasis, which is a condition where the airways become abnormally wide.
If a person with one of these conditions uses a humidifier, it should be regularly cleaned, according to the manufacturer’s guidelines, to kill bacteria and other pathogens that make symptoms worse.
Wearing a face mask in cold weather
Being hit by sudden cold air can increase a cough. Covering up the mouth and nose before going outside in cold weather can help to reduce coughing and shortness of breath. Cold-air face masks are available, or the mouth can be covered with a scarf or other item of clothing.
Honey is often used as a natural remedy for a cough, and it is said to have both antiviral and antibacterial properties.
Research into the effectiveness of honey for respiratory tract infections indicates it may be an effective home treatment.
A 2007 study looked at how well dark honey worked for children with bronchitis. While the children who took the honey experienced greater symptom relief than those taking the placebo, the clinical benefit was small. Honey should not be given to children under 1 year.
Pursed-lip breathing techniques
A breathing technique known as pursed-lip breathing may benefit people with bronchitis, as well as those with COPD.
The COPD Foundation advise that this technique helps people breathe easier by:
- keeping airways open longer
- slowing down breathing
- helping the lungs eliminate stale, trapped air
- improving the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
- increasing the time that can be spent on certain activities
Pursed-lip breathing involves inhaling through the nose for 2 seconds, before puckering the lips and exhaling slowly through the mouth for 4 to 6 seconds.
Essential oils such as eucalyptus may help to reduce airway inflammation.
Many people with bronchitis or COPD use essential oils to ease symptoms, particularly inflammation and breathing difficulties.
Some research suggests airway inflammation can be reduced by using myrtol, eucalyptus oil, or orange oil, with myrtol oil showing additional benefits against inflammation.
An animal study also found that oil from the flower Zataria multiflora reduced inflammation in guinea pigs with COPD.
Other essential oils which may help ease the breathing difficulties associated with bronchitis include:
- tea tree
Essential oils can be inhaled directly or used in a diffuser. Never take essential oils internally or apply them directly to the skin. To use on the skin, mix them with a carrier oil, such as mineral oil or sweet almond oil. Usually, it is 3-5 drops per 1 ounce of carrier oil.
Ginseng is a popular herbal remedy extracted from the fleshy roots of various slow-growing perennial plants.
In some research, ginseng extract was found to reduce the number of bacteria in the lungs of people with chronic bronchitis, who were having an attack of acute bronchitis.
Ginseng also has anti-inflammatory qualities, which may help it quell inflammation in the bronchial tubes.
This supplement is a modified version of the amino acid cysteine. It may help to reduce both the frequency and severity of coughing. NAC may also thin the mucus in the bronchi, allowing it to be eliminated from the body more easily.
An analysis of 13 studies on NAC for chronic bronchitis or COPD suggests that people with chronic bronchitis and an airway obstruction benefit from 1,200 milligrams (mg) per day. Those with bronchitis without an airway obstruction see benefits from a regular dose of 600 mg daily.
Other research suggests that those who have high vitamin D levels experience shorter bouts of respiratory infections or milder symptoms.
However, the evidence is mixed when it comes to taking vitamin D to treat respiratory infections. Nonetheless, vitamin D is important for overall health and supplementation is a low-risk approach to bronchitis treatment.
If you choose to use supplements, essential oils, or herbs, be aware that these are not monitored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for safety, quality, purity, or packaging. Choose to buy from a company you trust.
Types of bronchitis
There are two types of bronchitis known as acute and chronic.
Acute bronchitis, or a chest cold, is a common condition which can develop from a cold or respiratory infection. People tend to recover from acute bronchitis within 10 to 14 days.
Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a constant irritation of the bronchi that lasts 3 months or more, or recurrent episodes of bronchitis for at least 2 years. In 2015, 9 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis.
Symptoms of chronic bronchitis may worsen periodically, which indicates acute bronchitis in conjunction with the chronic condition.
Causes of bronchitis
The causes of bronchitis vary depending on the type.
Acute bronchitis is most commonly caused by a virus, particularly those that cause cold and flu. Viruses do not respond to antibiotic treatment, and so antibiotics should not be prescribed to someone who has acute bronchitis caused by a virus.
Smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis, although air pollution or dust can be a factor in some cases.
Several risk factors are linked with the onset of bronchitis, including:
- Poor immunity: People with lowered immunity are more vulnerable to bronchitis. Factors which reduce immunity include illness, viral infection, and age. Older adults and young children are at greater risk.
- Smoking: Cigarette smoke can irritate the lining of the bronchial tubes, which can result in bronchitis. More than 90 percent of people diagnosed with chronic bronchitis have a history of smoking. However, even passive smoke can be a risk factor. A 2012 study found that exposure to passive smoking at work almost doubled the risk of chronic bronchitis, while passive smoking at home increased the risk by 2.5 times.
- Other irritants: Continued exposure to grains, chemicals, dust, and fabric is known to cause irritation to the delicate lining of the bronchi.
- Heartburn: The acid that rises due to heartburn causes inflammation in the bronchial tubes.
Symptoms of bronchitis
The most common symptoms of bronchitis are:
- difficulty breathing
- mucus exhaustion
- generalized discomfort in the chest
- low-grade fever
People with acute bronchitis may also have had other symptoms consistent with cold or flu that contributed to the development of bronchitis. Examples of such symptoms include:
- runny nose
- sore throat
Approximately 1 in 20 cases of bronchitis result in pneumonia. In addition, repeated episodes of bronchitis can indicate COPD.
There are several steps to take to reduce the risk of developing acute or chronic bronchitis:
- Avoid irritants: If contact with lung irritants is unavoidable, take steps to reduce exposure. For example, increase ventilation or wear a mask.
- Quit smoking: Cutting out tobacco and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke will help.
- Improve immunity: Addressing underlying health conditions, eating a balanced diet, working out, reducing stress, and getting enough sleep all help.
- Limit exposure to bacteria and viruses where possible: Do this by washing hands frequently.
- Discuss vaccinations with a doctor: These may reduce the risk of bronchitis.
When to see a doctor
It is important to consult a doctor if symptoms of bronchitis endure beyond 3 weeks, are accompanied by a fever, or interfere with sleep.
Seek immediate medical attention if breathing difficulties become severe, or coughing produces blood.
There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is where the pancreas produces no insulin. Type 2 diabetes is more common. With type 2, the body either does not produce enough insulin or produces insulin that the body does not use properly.
There are many treatment options for people with type 2 diabetes. Growing research suggests that some herbs and supplements may help with the condition.
Useful herbs may be great to combine with more traditional methods to find relief from many type 2 diabetes symptoms.
Seven herbs and supplements
Here are seven herbs and supplements that may be of benefit to people with type 2 diabetes.
Studies suggest an antidiabetic potential for aloe that may lower blood sugar levels.
Aloe vera is a common plant with many different uses. Most people are aware of the plant being used to coat the skin and protect it from damage caused by too much sun exposure.
However, the plant has many lesser-known benefits as well. These range from helping digestive issues to possibly even relieving type 2 diabetes symptoms.
One review analyzed many studies using aloe vera to treat symptoms of diabetes. Their results strongly suggested an antidiabetic potential for aloe. Subjects given aloe showed lower blood sugar levels and higher insulin levels.
Further tests showed that aloe helps to increase how much insulin is produced by the pancreas. This could mean that aloe helps to restore bodies with type 2 diabetes or protect them from further damage. The researchers called for more studies to be done on aloe and its extracts to be certain of these effects.
There are many ways to take aloe. The juice pulp is sold in many markets and added to drinks, and extracts are put into capsules to be taken as supplements.
Cinnamon is a fragrant herb created from the bark of a tree and is commonly found in kitchens. It has a sweet and spicy fragrance and taste that can add sweetness without any additional sugar. It is popular with people with type 2 diabetes for this reason alone, but there is much more to cinnamon than just flavor.
A review found that subjects with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes who were given cinnamon showed positive results in many different areas such as:
- blood sugar levels
- insulin levels
- insulin sensitivity
- blood fat levels
- antioxidant levels
- blood pressure
- body mass
- time to process food
These are important markers for people with diabetes. From this research, it may be said that cinnamon is important for everyone with type 2 diabetes to take.
The researchers did note that the type of cinnamon and the amount taken does have an effect on the results, however. Only the highest quality cinnamon or cinnamon extracts in capsule form should be used as a complementary treatment method.
An experienced health care practitioner should always be consulted before starting to use cinnamon heavily as a supplement.
Bitter melon is a traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal fruit. Research suggests that the seeds may help to reduce blood sugar levels.
Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon, is a medicinal fruit. It has been used for centuries in the traditional medicine of China and India. The bitter fruit itself is cooked into many dishes, and the plant’s medicinal properties are still being discovered.
One discovery being backed by science is that bitter melon may help with symptoms of diabetes. One review noted that many parts of the plant have been used to help treat diabetes patients.
Bitter melon seeds were given to both people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes to reduce their blood sugar levels. Blended vegetable pulp mixed with water also lowered blood sugar levels in 86 percent of the type 2 diabetes patients tested. The fruit juice of the bitter melon also helped to improved blood sugar tolerance in many cases.
Eating or drinking the bitter melon can be an acquired taste. Luckily, similar effects were noted with extracts of the fruit taken as supplements as well.
There is not enough evidence to suggest that bitter melon could be used instead of insulin or medication for diabetes. However, it may help patients to rely less on those medications or lower their dosages.
Milk thistle is a herb that has been used since ancient times for many different ailments and is considered a tonic for the liver. The most studied extract from milk thistle is called silymarin, which is a compound that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is these properties that may make milk thistle a great herb for people with diabetes.
A review notes that many of the studies on silymarin are promising, but the research is not strong enough to begin recommending the herb or extract alone for diabetes care.
Many people may still find that it is an important part of a care routine, especially since the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties can help protect against further damage caused by diabetes. Milk thistle is most often taken as a supplement.
Fenugreek is another seed with the potential to lower blood sugar levels. The seeds contain fibers and chemicals that help to slow down the digestion of carbohydrates like sugar. The seeds may also help delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes.
A recent study found that people with prediabetes were less likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes while taking powdered fenugreek seed. This was caused by the seed increasing the levels of insulin in the body, which also reduced the sugar in the blood.
Researchers found that the seed helped to lower cholesterol levels in patients as well.
Fenugreek can be cooked into certain dishes, added to warm water, or ground into a powder. It can also be added to a capsule to be swallowed as a supplement.
Gymnema is a relatively new herb on the Western market. In the plant’s native home of India, its name means “sugar destroyer.” A recent review noted that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients given Gymnema have shown signs of improvement.
In people with type 1 diabetes who were given the leaf extract over a period of 18 months, fasting blood sugar levels were lowered significantly when compared to a group that received only insulin.
Other tests using Gymnema found that people with type 2 diabetes responded well to taking both the leaf and its extract over various periods of time. Using Gymnema lowered blood sugar levels and increased insulin levels in the body of some patients.
Using either the ground leaf or leaf extract may be beneficial for many people with diabetes.
Ginger has been used for many years to treat digestive and inflammatory issues. Recent research suggests that it may reduce insulin resistance.
Ginger is another herb that science is just discovering more about. It has been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine systems.
Ginger is often used to help treat digestive and inflammatory issues. However, a recent review posted to shows that it may be helpful in treating diabetes symptoms as well.
In their review, researchers found that supplementing with ginger lowered blood sugar levels, but did not lower blood insulin levels. Because of this, they suggest that ginger may reduce insulin resistance in the body for type 2 diabetes.
It is important to note that the researchers were uncertain as to how ginger does this. More research is being called for to make the claims more certain.
Ginger is often added to food raw or as a powdered herb, brewed into tea, or added to capsules as an oral supplement.
Important considerations for people with diabetes
It is always best to work with a healthcare professional before taking any new herb or supplement. Doctors usually have patients start out on a lower dose and gradually increase it until a comfortable dose is found.
Some herbs can interact with other medications that do the same job, such as blood thinners and high blood pressure medications. It is very important to be aware of any interactions before starting a new supplement.
It is also important for people to get herbs from a high-quality source. Herbs are not monitored by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Products may contain different herbs and fillers, recommend an incorrect dose, or even be contaminated with pesticides.
Herbs and supplements should be seen as a complementary treatment option, and should not replace medications.
Working closely with a knowledgeable healthcare professional, herbs can be a great addition to many care programs for diabetes.
Homeopathic medicine has great potential when used in conjunction with conventional medicine. Here are ten simple remedies you can try to help stop colds and flu symptoms in their tracks.
Even though lemons taste acidic, their juice helps to alkalinize the body. Lemons are loaded with vitamin C, which is known to support the body’s immune system. Lemon, as well as lime, is reported to decrease the strength of the cold and flu virus in the body and reduce phlegm.
How to use: Drink the juice of a lemon, or a few drops of lemon essential oil, squeezed into a cup of water or tea every few hours to build resistance or speed up healing.
Garlic is great in treating sore throats and infections. Garlic contains the immune-boosting compound allicin, also known to relieve cold and flu symptoms.
How to use: Crush five cloves and mix with half a cup of honey. Let it sit for a couple of hours and the mixture will become runny and thin. Take a teaspoonful at a time, as needed. If you’re worried about a severe odor or taste, crush a couple of cloves of garlic and “steep” them in hot water. Drink it like a mug of tea.
Cinnamon is known as a natural antibiotic, is a powerful antioxidant.
How to use: A teaspoon of raw honey and a 1/4 teaspoon of cinnamon can knock out a cold within a day or two.
Turmeric contains an anti-inflammatory compound called curcumin, which has a strong cold and flu-fighting properties. Turmeric has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and turmeric tea has been used for extensively worldwide for colds, congestion, headache, and sore throats.
How to use: Stir a teaspoon into a glass of water or use it in your cooking. In addition, the combination of honey with turmeric powder is an excellent remedy for a cough.
5. Cayenne pepper
Peppers are a heart-healthy food with the potential to protect against cancer, as well as common cold and flu viruses. Cayenne pepper is a natural remedy for a sore throat that can often precede a cold or flu.
How to use: A mixture of hot red chili powder and orange juice is an effective remedy for sore throats and congestion. Or take a teaspoon of pepper in a glass of water immediately when you feel a cold or a sore throat coming on. Its strong stimulatory effect can be enough to knock a cold out in the early stages.
Oregano is one of the best herbs for a cold. It is an excellent anti-inflammatory that contains phenolic acids, flavonoids, and color compounds that increase resistance and boosts immunity. Oregano is known for its antibacterial, antivirus, anti-fungus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, and anti-parasitic properties.
How to use: Oil of oregano is even more potent, and traditional healers since ancient times have used oregano extract to treat respiratory issues such as coughs, colds, flu, sore throats, and bronchitis. Add three to 10 drops of oil to a glass of water twice a day and continue until symptoms subside.
Ginger is a stimulant that will also warm you if you’re feeling chilled with your cold. It’s best used fresh rather than as a powder.
How to use: Peel and grate a small piece of ginger root and place in a cup of boiling water. Allowed it to steep for five minutes, sweeten with honey if desired, and sip whenever needed to soothe a scratchy throat or a cough.
Peppermint can clear blocked noses and sinuses. It can also help the body fight off illnesses.
How to use: Enjoy it as a stimulating tea or add some peppermint teabags of it to your bath. A few drops of peppermint essential oil in a glass of water, or diffused, can also work wonders.
9. Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar can fight off infection, ease digestion, reduce inflammation, kill fungus, regulate pH balance, and wash toxins from the body. It’s also known to restore alkaline acid balance.
How to use: Add a tablespoon or two of apple cider vinegar to a tablespoon of honey and a cup of hot water to create an elixir to help ward off cold and flu symptoms.
A daily dose of honey can help you to feel energetic and stay healthy. It also has antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, so, if you do develop a sore or scratchy throat, honey will soothe and help heal. Research shows that children who take a spoonful of honey before bed, cough less and sleep better than those who take over-the-counter products for coughs and colds.
How to use: Adding a little lemon to the honey will increase its anti-microbial effect. Honey and lemon can also be combined with hot water to make a soothing tea.
History and Traditional Use
Range and Habitat
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a tropical perennial herb native to Southeast Asia and widely cultivated in China, India, Nigeria, Australia, Jamaica, and Haiti.1 Its subterranean stem, known as a rhizome, is the edible and medicinal portion of the plant.2 Ginger root is characterized by its knotted, beige exterior and its yellow interior. The herb features thick, protruding, reed-like3 stems and lanceolate leaves arranged in two vertical columns on opposite sides of the stem.4 Seasonally unfurling from ginger’s leaves are dense, ovoid-shaped flower structures that produce yellow-green flowers with a deep purple, yellow-marked lip.3Ginger plants can have an indefinite spread in tropical climates, though it is susceptible to pests and disease.5 The flavor of ginger is described as sweet and peppery with a prominent spicy aroma due to the presence of gingerols and ketones.6
Phytochemicals and Constituents
Thus far, researchers have identified 115 chemical components in a variety of dried and fresh ginger types.6 The most important phenolic elements of the ginger root are gingerols and their ginger-related composites — paradols, zingerone, and shogaols.6,7 Gingerols are the most abundant constituents of fresh ginger6; the three other phenolic compounds are not as plentiful. When gingerols are cooked or dried, they transform into various bioactive compounds,6 many of which have beneficial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties.7 Research suggests that the optimal dosage of ginger ranges from 250 mg to 4.8 g per day of fresh or dried rhizomes.6,8 Other dosages for ginger intake vary depending on the form in which they are consumed and the purpose for which they are intended.8
Historical and Commercial Uses
In India, ginger has been used as a flavoring agent in food and beverage preparations as well as in traditional Ayurveda medicinal practices.4 Historically, it was regarded as the mahaoushadha (“the great medicine”) among ancient Indians.9 Fresh and dried ginger is used commonly in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of ailments such as indigestion, fever, and digestive disorders.8 Fresh ginger is thought to be beneficial in reducing nausea and vomiting due to the presence of shogaol, and dried ginger has been shown to alleviate chronic respiratory conditions.10 In addition, gingerol, the most predominate pungent bioactive compound of ginger, has been reported to stimulate digestive enzymes to help improve gastrointestinal (GI) issues.
In Traditional Chinese Medicine, fresh ginger root (sheng jiang) is considered warm and pungent and recognized for dispersing cold within the stomach, which contributes to the treatment of nausea and vomiting.11 It also is acknowledged as an expeller of exterior cold, quelling inflammation of the stomach and infections related to the cold and flu. Dry ginger (gan jiang) is considered to be more hot and pungent than fresh ginger, and it is responsible for dispersing cold in the spleen region, thereby alleviating ailments such as diarrhea and poor appetite. Quick-fried ginger (pao jiang) is warm and bitter and used to treat symptoms associated with conditions such as dysmenorrhea and diarrhea. Asian cuisine features ginger in a number of dishes for flavoring, including soups, curries, rice dishes, stir-fries, and sauces.12
It is believed that both the Chinese and Indians have used ginger root for medicinal purposes for more than 5,000 years; however, the exact origin is unknown.6 Highly prized for its medicinal properties, ginger was a popular trading commodity exported to the Roman Empire more than 2,000 years ago from India. (Anecdotally, Queen Elizabeth I of England is credited with the creation of the gingerbread man, which evolved into a popular treat consumed during the Christmas holidays.)
Ginger is used commercially in a variety of forms, including, but not limited to, fresh, dried, and candied.6The age of the ginger plant determines its culinary and medicinal use. Young ginger root harvested at five months has not matured and typically has a mild flavor, suitable to be used fresh. At nine months, ginger characteristically has a thick skin and pungent root, from which the volatile oils can be extracted. This material also is used in dried or ground form as a spice and in commercial baking products. Further, ginger is added as a flavoring to a number of different beverages such as ginger ale, ginger beer, and ginger wine.12
A considerable amount of research demonstrates and supports the significant health benefits of ginger. The majority of clinical evidence for ginger’s medicinal properties is related to nausea caused by pregnancy or chemotherapy.13
Three clinical studies have explored the effects of ginger in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea in young adults and children.14-16 The results from these studies indicated that ginger is effective in decreasing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. More specifically, one trial indicated that supplementing with ginger (0.5 g to 1.0 g liquid ginger root extract) reduces nausea.16 In a separate study, researchers observed reductions in the prevalence of nausea in patients with breast cancer when 1.5 g powdered dried ginger root was added to an antiemetic therapy following chemotherapy.14
Another clinical study observed the effects of powdered ginger in patients with intra- and postoperative nausea accompanying Cesarean sections.17 The results indicated that episodes of intraoperative nausea were reduced when ginger was administered orally. However, ginger did not have an effect on the overall incidence of intraoperative nausea and vomiting.
Ginger has been explored as a possible treatment for other GI issues such as dyspepsia, gastric emptying, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).18-20 The authors of one clinical study tested the effects of ginger on functional dyspepsia and gastric motility.18 The results indicated that ginger increased gastric emptying more rapidly than the placebo; however, ginger did not influence any GI symptoms. Researchers of a related clinical trial examined ginger’s effects on IBS over a period of 28 days.20 The results indicated that the group taking 1 g of ginger had a 26.4% reduction in symptoms.
Studies have shown that ginger may be beneficial for non-GI-related conditions as well. In two separate clinical studies, researchers explored ginger’s mitigating impact on dysmenorrhea. The first study was conducted for a period of three days based on reports of pain experienced during the first two days of menstruation each month.21 The results suggested that ginger had more of an impact on dysmenorrhea symptoms compared to muscle-relaxation exercises. A similar clinical study found that at the end of the study period, 82.85% of the participants in the experimental group reported symptom improvement compared to 47.05% of the participants in the placebo group.22
Three clinical studies have examined the effects of ginger in the treatment of colorectal cancer.7,23,24 As noted, the bioactive compounds of ginger contain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties, which can interfere with pathways responsible for cancer development.7 The results of all three studies demonstrated that an intake of 2 g of ginger root was able to reduce proliferation in the colorectal epithelium. Further, one trial illustrated that ginger simultaneously increased apoptosis (normal, programmed cell death) and differentiation.7 Ginger also exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect in individuals of normal risk and lowered COX-1 in individuals at higher risk.23,24
Other clinical studies have explored the effects of ginger in relation to muscle pain, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lower-back pain, satiety, migraines, osteoarthritis, and type 2 diabetes.25-32
Macronutrient Profile: (Per 1 tablespoon [6 g] raw ginger)
Secondary Metabolites: (Per 1 tablespoon [6 g] raw ginger)
Good source of:
Magnesium: 3 mg (0.75% DV)
DV = Daily Value as established by the US Food and Drug Administration, based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Basic Report: 11216, Ginger root, raw. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture website. Available here. Accessed February 23, 2015.