Category Archives: Clinical Efficacy of Propolis for Treating Dysmenorrhea

Clinical Efficacy of Propolis for Treating Dysmenorrhea

Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a condition that causes abdominal cramping during menstruation. PD affects 60-93% of women in their reproductive years and typically occurs in adolescents and young women without associated pelvic pathology. Risk factors include age <20 years, family history of PD, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, Solanaceae) smoking, heavy or irregular menstruation, menarche at <12 years of age, low weight, and

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